How the Thyroid Gland Works

How the Thyroid Gland Works


The thyroid gland is an organ of the human body located at the base of the neck. the thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped about 2-inches long and lies in front of throat below the prominence of the thyroid, it releases hormones that control metabolism the way human body uses energy. hormones Produced by the thyroid gland travel through the blood to all parts of human body, where they do their work.

  • Body weight
  • Heart rate
  • Breathing
  • Muscle strength
  • Menstrual cycles
  • Body temperature
  • Cholesterol levels
  • Central and peripheral nervous systems

How the Thyroid Gland Works

The pituitary gland, a gland located at the base of the brain controls thyroid gland. the pituitary glands work is to check the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood and tell thyroid glands to produce more or less hormone so always there should be the right amount, so the hormones can reach the body’s cells.

Thyroid mainly produces 2 hormones:

  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Thyroxine (T4)

T3 and T4 travel through the bloodstream to reach almost every cell in the human body. The hormones regulate the speed with which the cells/metabolism work, T3, and T4 regulate your heart rate and how fast intestines process food. So,

If T3 and T4 levels are low, heart rate may be slower than normal and may have constipation/weight gain.

If T3 and T4 levels are high, may have a rapid heart rate and diarrhea/weight loss.



When T3 and T4 Levels are low, the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone, which is called hypothyroidism. When human body doesn’t have enough thyroid hormone, parts of the human body work too slow.

Symptoms If T3 and T4 levels are low (Hypothyroidism):

  • Trouble sleeping
  • Tiredness and fatigue
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Depression
  • Sensitivity to cold temperature
  • Frequent, heavy periods
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Being Constipated
  • Gaining weight even if eating less
  • In children, growing very slow.


When T3 and T4 Levels are high, thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone, an overactive thyroid makes your body idle too fast which is called hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms If T3 and T4 levels are high (Hyperthyroidism):

  • Irritability or moodiness
  • Nervousness, hyperactivity
  • Sweating or sensitivity to high temperatures
  • Hand trembling (shaking)
  • Hair loss and Anxiety
  • Missed or light menstrual periods
  • Having trouble concentrating
  • Having a fast heart rate and diarrhea
  • Having trouble sleeping
  • Losing weight without trying

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