Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS or PCOD
PCOS is a common hormonal system disorder occurring in women of reproductive age. It is also called PCOD. It is actually the most common hormonal disorder in women between the ages of 18 and 44. An estimated 5-10% of woman of this age group are affected by this problem.
PCOD is a common hormonal disorder occurring in women at reproductive age. It is also known as PCOS. It is basically the most common hormonal disorder in women in ages of 18 to 44. An estimated 5-10% women of this age group are affected by this problem.
What happens in PCOD or PCOS?
Most of the patients having PCOS are seen to have cysts in their ovaries. These cysts cause some hormonal disturbances. The hormonal system of human beings is so designed by nature that one hormone triggers the release of another hormone and so on. Therefore, deficiency or excess of a particular hormone can cause imbalance in many other hormones too.
In PCOS, the levels of androgen are raised more than the normal limits. Androgens are the male hormones. They are present in small quantities in normal females. When the levels increase, these can cause disturbance in menstrual periods and cause delayed menses. The normal ovulation cycle also gets disturbed and ovulation gets delayed or does not happen at all. Facial hair and hair on other parts of the body start appearing in females which are otherwise not present.
Causes of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS causes
The exact cause of PCOS is not known. It has been observed that it tends to run in families. This does not mean that you will necessarily have it if your mother or sister or grandmother had it. But this means that the chances of you having it, increase if someone in your family had it. Obesity or being overweight is also another predisposing factor in the presence of PCOS. Meaning if you are obese or overweight, you have high chances of developing PCOS than those with normal weight. It has also been observed that the situation improves when you lose weight. The condition tends to reverse with loss of weight. Therefore, all patients who have PCOS are advised to lose weight and exercise regularly. Presence of diabetes or insulin resistance is also known to induce PCOS.
Symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS symptoms
The symptoms associated with PCOS often start early after menarche. They may not be immediately noticeable to the full extent. Most of the time, the symptoms get noticed after a spurt of weight gain. In other cases, the symptoms start later in life or may again be noticed after substantial weight gain. The common symptoms associated with PCOS are as follows-
• Irregular menses – The menstrual cycle gets disturbed. There is the possibility of periods being delayed or no periods at all for months. There may be pain during menses and also periods are likely to be heavy and erratic.
• Excess of male hormones – The increase in androgens or male hormones lead to other physical signs like growth of facial hair and other parts of the body like arms, legs, chest, abdomen and fingers. At the same time, there may be loss of hair from the scalp. The skin becomes a little rougher or thicker. Acne on the face, shoulders and back is also commonly seen.
• Cysts in the ovaries – On ultrasound examination, ovaries are often found to be having multiple cysts.
• Obesity- There is tendency towards central obesity, which means that one tends to gain weight around the abdomen.
• Fertility issues – At times PCOS also interferes with your ability to get pregnant and carry the pregnancy normally.
• Skin discolorations – At times there is discoloration of the skin